Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) Measurements and Uncertainty Assessment

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The book subsequently discusses the dimensional characterization of waveguide standards and the quality of the vector network analyzer VNA calibration techniques. The book concludes with an in-depth description of the novel verification artefacts used to assess the performance of the VNAs.

S-Parameter & Transfer Function Measurement

It offers a comprehensive reference guide for beginners to experts, in both academia and industry, whose work involves the field of network analysis, instrumentation and measurements. Grand Eagle Retail is the ideal place for all your shopping needs!

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How to calibrate a Vector Network Analyzer, VNA

Commercial VNA verification kits are available for this purpose, but these are very expensive, as they contain precision airlines like in the photograph below, which shows the two airlines from an HP B verification kit. The data is in a format designed to be read by a VNA, not a human. Although airlines are the best devices to verify the calibration with, it is impossible to produce precision airlines and put them in a low cost kit. Airlines are also very delicate, and need handling with lint free gloves. However, Kirkby Microwave do provide some ways to verify performance in their calibration and verification kits.

Download Vector Network Analyzer Vna Measurements And Uncertainty Assessment

It is highly recommended that you perform these verification steps after the VNA has been set up to use the kit, in order to verify that everything is set correctly. The attenuator supplied in the N and SMA kits is not the most rigerous test of a calibration, but it useful, which is why it is included.

Having the correct coefficients loaded into the VNA is critical, yet sometimes people enter them incorrectly. The following procedure will detect some errors. If possible, to ensure maximum stability when doing these tests, do not use any cables, but use adapters to connect to the VNA. A failure to give good results indicates either a fault in the VNA or an error in uploading the coefficients properly. Unlike calibration kits from other manufacturers, all our coaxial kits include a fixed attenuator with measured data.

If you get similar results to what's shown on the USB stick, there is unlikely to be any serious problems.


You should get good agreement on S21 and S12, but do not expect good agreement on S11 or S22, since the return loss of the attenuator is high, so the measurement uncertainty is high. Note the aim of the verification attenuator is not to prove your VNA is within specification - if you need to know that, send it back to the manufacturer , and not a third party lab. But the attenuator will give you a good idea if there are any serious problems. This procedure is applicable to our N and SMA kit. Some parts can only be performed on the N kit, and some only with the SMA kit but most can be done with either kit.

The data measured by Kirkby Microwave will be placed in a. This will have the name attenuator-xxxx. It will have the measured data on all 4 S-parameters. PDF plots of the data are also provided for the convenience of the user, although it is easy to plot them yourself, once you understand the. An understanding of Touchstone files is essential if you intend making any serious use of a VNA. You can plot the data using OpenOffice , Microsoft's Excel, or any other software capable of producing graphs.