Multiphase Polymers - Blends and Ionomers

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The polystyrene contained 4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering evidence are presented for the formation of molecular interactions between the Cu-carboxylate and the vinyl pyridine groups.

Although the blends were phase separated, improvements in miscibility were realized when the complex was formed. A molecular architecture similar to that of a physically crosslinked grafted-block copolymer is proposed. Thermal mechanical and dynamic mechanical analyses demonstrated a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the blends compared with a blend in which only an acid-base type interaction was possible.

The formation of the transition metal complex increased the rubbery modulus between the two glass transitions and gave rise to a new plateau region in the modulus above the glass transition of the polystyrene-rich phase.

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An equivalent weight series of short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic polymers has been studied in the sulfonyl fluoride, sulfonic acid, and sodium sulfonate forms by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide angle X-ray scattering. Results indicate that the functional form of the polymer as well as the side chain length and equivalent weight strongly affect the morphology of the materials and therefore their dynamic mechanical and thermal properties.

Evidence is also presented for the presence of two different types of crystal structures in these materials. Side chain length thus provides an additional variable by which the structure and properties of perfluorinated ionomers may be controlled. The objective of this work was to affect the in situ growth of silicon oxide microclusters or interpenetrating networks in Nation membranes via the sol-gel reaction for tetraethoxysilane TEOS.

The underlying hypotheses are: 1 The resultant morphology of the inorganic phase is ordered by the polymer's phase-separated morphology. Solids uptake vs. Tensile properties vs. FT-IR and 29Si solid state NMR analyses of microstructural evolution portray an inorganic network that is not as highly crosslinked as that of sol-gel-derived free silica and in fact becomes less coordinated and connected with increasing solids uptake. X-ray analysis techniques, such as small-angle x-ray scattering SAXS , have been profitably applied in probing ionomer morphology for many years.

The combination of SAXS and EXAFS was used to explain the modulus enhancement, due to interlocking loops of polymer chain, and high-strain behavior, due to aggregate cohesion, of five carboxy-telechelic polyisoprenes neutralized with divalent cations. ASAXS was used to show that the upturn near zero angle commonly observed in the SAXS patterns of ionomers is due to scattering from cations, possibly reflecting an inhomogeneous distribution of dissolved ionic groups.

Small domains of high electronic density have been imaged in halato-telechelic ionomers by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy STEM using the technique of atomic number or Z-contrast. The possibility that these are ionic domains is evaluated and the morphology compared with that derived from recent SAXS experiments.

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Low-angle light scattering and dynamic light scattering experiments were conducted for partially sulfonated polystyrene ionomers sodium salt in a polar and a low polarity solvent. In the polar solvent DMF , the concept of effective diameter of ionomers macroions was adopted to discuss the effect of counterion and ion content on the solution properties of ionomers. Also, preliminary dynamic scattering data suggested the existence of three different concentration regions for ionomers in the polar solvent.

The dynamic scattering data suggested the polydispersity of the molecular aggregates. Rheologlcal properties of flexible long chain polymers can be dramatically altered by Introducing a very small fraction of ionic groups along the hydrocarbon backbone. The molecular parameters responsible for the solution properties of lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomers have been studied in a non-ionizing solvent.

A combination of solution viscosity measurements, quasi-elastic light scattering, static small-angle light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering studies have been performed. The results yield values for the effective diffusion coefficient, radius of gyration and apparent molecular weight. From this combination of scattering and rheologlcal Information, a more detailed description emerges of ionomer solution behavior over a range of polymeric molecular weights, ionic contents and concentrations.

Past and current research on ionomers plasticized by nonaqueous diluents are the focus of this paper, although hydrated ionomers are also considered. Studies involving viscoelastic properties, X-ray scattering and spectroscopic techniques are highlighted. The contrasting effects of polar and nonpolar plasticizers in ionomers are described, as well as the mixed effects of functionalized oligomeric plasticizers.

The need for comprehensive and systematic investigations of ionomer-plasticizer systems in order to elucidate mechanisms of plasticization and structure-property relations in general in these systems is pointed out. Pair your accounts. Your Mendeley pairing has expired.

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Please reconnect. Utracki 1 R. Weiss 2. Publication Date Print : July 21, Joan Comstock i-iv DOI: First Page PDF. Preface L. Utracki D. Walsh R. Interface Modification in Polymer Blends R. Fayt R. Shows some signs Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks.

Multiphase polymers blends and ionomers pdf

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  • Seller Rating:. Published by American Chemical Society Used Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. Anybook Ltd. Lincoln, United Kingdom. Utracki; Editor-R. Used Quantity Available: 1. Published by Amer Chemical Society. Weiss eds. There are more copies of this book View all search results for this book. In many cases, the observed rheological behavior is compared to the predictions of theoretical, computational, or empirical models. In this chapter, as a guideline to control the phase separation morphology, the morphology formation mechanism is primarily explained.

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    First the phase diagram and the phase separation mechanism are briefly explained to provide basic knowledge on controlling the morphology of polymer blends. Then, the effect of the shear flow on the phase diagram as a factor that influences the formation of the phase separation morphology is explained and the relation to the morphology control is shown. This is especially important in the polymer processing of polymer blends. Finally, as a control of the phase separation morphology using reactions, reaction-induced phase separation and reactive blending are explained. Because most polymer blends are immiscible, it is necessary to use some methods to obtain polymer blends that show good physical properties.

    Therefore, these are powerful tools for controlling the morphology in the polymer blends. In processing polymer blends, equipment selection, conditions, and formulation are highly important to control the final morphology. Then, different methods and equipments are presented for lab-scale and industrial applications. A special focus is made on reactive system and phase compatibilization to improve the properties of the final blends.

    Also, nonmechanical techniques solutions are presented. This chapter presents an overview of properties and performance of polymer blends.