Kenya Thunguri washing station. Home Kenya Kirinyaga Thunguri washing station. About Thunguri washing station. Technical Information. Flavor Profile. Meanwhile, dozens of families in Riamugaa village were affected by the rains after their homes were submerged in water. One person was killed and about thirty households displaced by floods following heavy rains in Kirinyaga County. Residents said the man, who was casual labourer, was crossing the river on Wednesday when he was hit by a strong current and swept down stream.
The victims appealed to the local and national governments to offer them aid following the devastative floods. Ms Sarafina Wacera, a victim, said though she she lost nearly everything, she was glad to be alive. I lost everything including my seven chickens and one goat," she said. Another victim, Mr John Githomo, said his child escaped death on Wednesday night by a whisker after their house was submerged in water.
ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since Learn more about ReliefWeb. General Odero became the leader of Embu's Haraka platoon until he was shot dead by the government forces at the end of As the Mau-Mau movement grew, Embu's Haraka platoon was subdivided into more platoons.
In particular, the Kimuri [flame] platoon comprising Ndia and Gicugu divisional fighters was created while the Embu division within the rest of the Embu District retained the title of Haraka platoon. In the new arrangements, General Kassam became the leader of the Gicugu platoon while General Agha Khan named after Nairobi's Agha Khan Hospital where he had come from became the leader of the Ndia platoon.
General Chui wa Mararo continued to steward the entire Ndia forces as overall commander until he was killed in April General Agha Khan was shot dead in by the surrendering Mau-Mau fighters who were now working for the colonial government and removed from his forest camp on a stretcher.
Some causes of Mau-Mau war. It was partly as a result of the issues that dominated African politics from to It is important to note that the forced carrying of the Kipande -identity card and passbook - that were introduced after the First World War IB without which no African could leave his or her home to seek employment, caused a lot of pain and general tension in the country. Habitually, European settlers would punish "errant" African workers by tearing up the Kipande , thereby making it impossible for them to get further employment. They would flog their African workers from time to time and justify their cruel actions with trivial excuses.
As David Anderson avers, "by the early s, the deaths of several African servants from beatings at the hands of their European masters earned Kenya's white settlers an unenviable reputation for brutality". Other issues that dominated African politics from to were a concern for land alienation and displacements that made people squatters in their own country, the insensitivity of the European settlers who abused, sacked, beat, insulted and generally harassed their workers with impunity, the low level of African wages, and the view that Europeans were mortal beings just as the Africans, the heavy taxation by European Settler-farmers and the politics of the returnees of the First World War who saw their being forced to fight in the war as unnecessary and viewed the war as of no benefit to the two fighting "clans" - the Germans and the British.
Such bold observations inspired the Africans who listened to the narratives of the returnees to start blaming the Europeans for some of their actions in the then Kenyan colony. According to Herbert Peacock, by the time WW1 had ended, it had wrought the greatest destruction the worid had ever experienced. For every minute of fighting, four soldiers had been killed and nine wounded.
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In total, the war left about 10 million widows and orphans and one million dependants without any means of survival. Consequently, Africans began to question the policies of the colonial government, principally those that did not favour the black masses. Another case study is that of Njeru wa Kanyenje, who was forced to fight the Germans in the First World War and eventually returned convinced that it had no relevance to Africa.
In particular, the British had told him that the Germans were cannibals, who, if not defeated, would invade Kenya and capture Africans for meat. This propaganda was meant to encourage Africans to see World War 1 WW1 as being to their own benefit. In addition, he and his peers found that the Germans were fellow tribesmen with the British, only that they perhaps belonged to a different clan. In view of this, wa Kanyenje concluded that the British administrators must have been liars. Therefore, he felt that the British and the Germans ought to have resolved their tribal disputes at home, in Europe, and should not have involved Africans in the first place.
That is, they would have sat together and sought consensus on their problems and thereby reconcile, a phenomenon that is well emphasised in the Ubuntu humane philosophy.
Certainly, such observation finds agreement with John Mbiti's understanding of authentic human nature:. By nature, Africans are neither Angels nor demons; they posses and exercise the potentialities of both angels and demons. They can be kind as the Germans, but they can be murderous as the Germans; Africans can be as generous as Americans, but they can be as greedy as the Americans; they can be as friendly as the Russians, but they can be as cruel as the Russians; they can be as honest as English, but they can be equally hypocritical.
Out of the people who were recruited in Kenya to fight in WW1, nearly 24 lost their lives, a situation that made the returnees wonder: what did our colleagues die for? To them, it was irresponsible to include Africans in a domestic dispute solely meant for "others".
In both cases, the returnees of WWI and WW2 reportedly came back with great pride for Africa, its religious heritage and identity. In the view of the author, the immediate cause of the Mau-Mau war was the colour bar - as the Kenyan apartheid was called. Zablon Nthamburi explains the segregated environment that obtained during the colonial era:.shtm.kovalev.com.ua/assets/comprar-cloroquina-500mg-pastillas.php
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I remember growing up as a small child in one of the small towns in Kenya. There was a "whites only" restaurant in town with the inscription "Africans and dogs are not welcome". From the very beginning, you were made to understand that you are not fully human. You were classified with the dogs, and that is the treatment you got.
For Nthamburi's and his contemporaries, colonialism became a stigma that African people could not forget. This colour bar was experienced in all the vicissitudes of life - a trajectory that demeaned Africans by relegating them permanently to the periphery, a position they were not willing to accept. The "distorted" missionary-oriented education. Undoubtedly, this was the lowest standard of examination education for that matter offered in the Kenyan colony. In the Anglican Church leadership, positions were also largely reserved for the European missionaries. In cases where Africans as leaders were placed in the lower ranks on the ecclesiastical ladder, they were "trained" to, despise their own African indigenous activities as lacking in substance; hence, they were collectively seen as representing the mind of the "coloniser.
Before the advent of African-instituted schools in s, education was offered solely by the European missionaries and, particularly, the Church Missionary Society [CMS].
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The Roman Catholics also offered western education in their schools but, unlike the Anglicans who had schools in almost every village, their churches were fewer and scattered across the present day Kirinyaga County and in the former Embu District which currently constitutes both the Embu and Kirinyaga counties. Largely, mission education was seen as distorted because the education system was tailor-made, meant to help the leamer to merely know how to read the Bible.
Basically, it was meant to help the learner-built ground for abandoning the African religion for the new Christian religion. In some cases, it could also help one to acquire a job as a clerk in the emerging industries and European shops and farms. In general, the mode and content of teaching were highly distorted as it encouraged one to despise his or her own culture.
In view of this, Jesse Mugambi says, thus:. I come from the Southern slopes of Mount Kenya, and during the colonial period we were taught that Dr.
Indeed, he might have been the first European to see the snow-capped peak of this great mountain on the equator. However, he certainly was not the first human being to see that mountain millions of Africans had seen the mountain before him, and almost took it for granted in the same way that human beings everywhere tend to take their immediate environment for granted. He therefore did not discover it. Church and government seen as siblings. Another cause of tension between the church and the Mau-Mau warriors is the fact that both the colonial government and the CMS were seen to be working in cohorts in all social discourses.
In his article The quest for religious freedom in Kenya , Julius Gathogo cites the case of CMS Mutira Mission where the assistant chief, Ndegwa wa Kimere, supported the missionary work in order to protect his job.
Brandon Laight, the pioneer European missionary in the locality. Laight served in the Mutira mission from to He was the one who recommended Ndegwa wa Kimere to the local DC. Such gestures ironically poisoned the African populace who saw both missionary and the coloniser as two sides of the same coin. Similarly, Mugambi's experiences with the missionary enterprise reveals similar patterns. He observes:. During that period, until , the missionary agencies fully supported the colonial regime.
In school and at the church they as citizens of the empire taught us to be docile subjects of Her Majesty the Queen. Yet they expected us to respect them. Rather than winning respect, they instilled fear in us. While accepting the Gospel, we rejected its ideological misappropriation by the missionary establishments. Thus, long before 1 began to study theology I knew and understood the difference between oppression and liberation.
Some Africans rejected Christianity, as propagated by Church Mission Society CMS after they identified the missionary enterprise with the colonial invasion. Consequently, they did not find any evidence to suggest that the objectives of the CMS were any different from those of the colonial administration. It may be remarked that missionary activity [referring to Anglican Christianity], which went concurrently with the expansion of European hegemony in Africa, supplemented the colonial policy.
The missionaries felt more secure within the administration of their own colonial powers. In fact, they were happy to create an African middle class, which would fit the world of European. From such a middle class would be found a people who were suitable for a ministry. Such people would emulate the European missionary in every way by even adopting European way of life. The fact that the Christian religion was introduced by the Europeans made the church of s, s and s to be seen as a tool of colonial administration by the Mau-Mau revolutionary rebels.
Indeed, as Kingsley Martin contends, the Mau-Mau war, to an extent, became a civil war mainly fought between those who were determined to maintain the ancient religion of Mount Kenya Karing'a or culture-oriented Kikuyu and the few who had embraced Christianity Kirore or fingerprint Kikuyu and were seen to be Western minded. Reaction and counter-reaction.
Imitating the missionaries ' Holy Eucharist?
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To some Christians and the European missionaries in the s and s, the Mau-Mau oath was a resurrected rite from the ancient past. It was a powerful oath and was the antichrist. The power the oath had over the mind of the oath-taker was amazing. The political leader, Jomo Kenyatta, did not approve of the extreme aspects of the Mau-Mau uprising although he later became the nation's first president and forbade the restoration of any Mau-Mau activity.
Characteristically, the Mau-Mau fighters followed the Maoist textbook with regard to revolution 38 They tried to force all Kikuyu people to take the oath and they killed dozens of their own ethnic members who refused to take the oath. This included mainly the Christians who refused to take the oath for religious reasons. How can we take another oath, yet Jesus did it for both Jews and Gentiles?
Is the taking of an oath not a poor imitation of taking part in the Holy Eucharist, hence, blasphemy? Some of the Christians who were later martyred would wonder. As will be demonstrated, Reuben Kinyua Kaara became one of the most celebrated Christian martyrs in the Mutira mission of Kirinyaga after his brutal murder by the Mau-Mau revolutionary rebels in As Gathogo noted, his rejection of the oath, conducted in s and s, was on the basis that "Africans need independence and not the oath" and that "the way to independence was not necessarily violence" 39 Again, as a Christian, he did not see the need for another oath as Jesus' crucifixion, death and resurrection were "enough universal oaths".
How can you "swear to shed blood, even if it is for a just cause, when Jesus did it for all humanity?