Examples of irrational in a Sentence Adjective He became irrational as the fever got worse. She had an irrational fear of cats. So Is Everyone Else.
Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?
This Guide Will Help. First Known Use of irrational Adjective 14th century, in the meaning defined above Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 1. Learn More about irrational. Resources for irrational Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near irrational irradicable irradicate irrationable irrational irrationalism irrationalize irrationalness. Time Traveler for irrational The first known use of irrational was in the 14th century See more words from the same century.
English Language Learners Definition of irrational. Kids Definition of irrational. Other Words from irrational irrationally adverb. Comments on irrational What made you want to look up irrational? If you want to increase the motivation for — and, therefore, the speed of — execution, it pays to involve others in creating the strategy, even when the answer may already be clear in your mind. In the other, shoppers anchor on 12 and adjust downward. The difference in impact is both proven and profound, yet taking a zero-based approach to cost reduction is rarely practiced.
Further examples of predictable irrationality abound with important business implications.
Famous earlier economists, such as Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and John Maynard Keynes, had made use of irrationality and other aspects of psychology in their theories.
But in the post-war years these aspects were mostly brushed aside by the new wave of rationalists. The dominance of rationality went hand-in-glove with the growing use in economics of mathematics, which also happened to be much easier to apply if humans were assumed to be rational. Rational behaviour was understood to have several components. And he would be consistent in his choices: if he preferred apples to oranges, and oranges to pears, he also preferred apples to pears.
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In addition, there is a broader definition of rationality which includes the notion of a person's beliefs being based on logical, objective analysis of all the available evidence. Whether this is a meaningful definition continues to be the subject of much philosophical debate. By the late s, economic rationality was not only the orthodoxy, it began to effect events in the real world. This said that, rather than forming expectations on the basis of limited information drawn from previous experience, people take into account all available information.
This includes making an accurate assessment of government policy. Thus, when governments announced that they would do whatever was necessary to bring down inflation, people would adjust their expectations accordingly.
Companies hire us to help them change behavior (for good)
Even if there are many stupid investors, went the theory, they would be driven out of the market by rational investors who could profit by trading against the investments of the foolish. As a result, economists scoffed at the notion that investors could consistently earn a higher return than the market average by picking shares. How times have changed. Some of those same economists have now become investment managers—although their performance has suggested that they should have paid heed to their earlier beliefs about the difficulty of beating the market.
During the s, macroeconomic policies based on rational expectations failed to live up to their promise although this was probably because people rationally refused to believe government promises. And the stockmarket crash of October shattered the confidence of many economists in efficient markets.
The Upside of Irrationality
The crash seemed to have occurred without any new information or reason. Thus, the door of the ivory tower opened, at first only slightly, to theories that included irrational behaviour. Today there is a growing school of economists who are drawing on a vast range of behavioural traits identified by experimental psychologists which amount to a frontal assault on the whole idea that people, individually or as a group, mostly act rationally. A quick tour of the key observations made by these psychologists would make even Mr Spock's head spin.
For example, people appear to be disproportionately influenced by the fear of feeling regret , and will often pass up even benefits within reach to avoid a small risk of feeling they have failed. They are also prone to c ognitive dissonance : holding a belief plainly at odds with the evidence, usually because the belief has been held and cherished for a long time.
And then there is anchoring : people are often overly influenced by outside suggestion. People can be influenced even when they know that the suggestion is not being made by someone who is better informed. In one experiment, volunteers were asked a series of questions whose answers were in percentages—such as what percentage of African countries is in the United Nations? A wheel with numbers from one to was spun in front of them; they were then asked to say whether their answer was higher or lower than the number on the wheel, and then to give their answer.
These answers were strongly influenced by the randomly selected, irrelevant number on the wheel.
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Experiments show that most people apparently also suffer from status quo bias : they are willing to take bigger gambles to maintain the status quo than they would be to acquire it in the first place. In one common experiment, mugs are allocated randomly to some people in a group. Those who have them are asked to name a price to sell their mug; those without one are asked to name a price at which they will buy.
Usually, the average sales price is considerably higher than the average offer price. Expected-utility theory assumes that people look at individual decisions in the context of the big picture.
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But psychologists have found that, in fact, they tend to compartmentalise , often on superficial grounds. They then make choices about things in one particular mental compartment without taking account of the implications for things in other compartments. There is also a huge amount of evidence that people are persistently, and irrationally, over-confiden t. Asked to answer a factual question, then asked to give the probability that their answer was correct, people typically overestimate this probability.
source link This may be due to a representativeness heuristic : a tendency to treat events as representative of some well-known class or pattern. This gives people a sense of familiarity with an event and thus confidence that they have accurately diagnosed it.