Gateway south : the campaign for Monterrey

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The fortification was manned with infantry and three batteries of artillery. From Fort Libertad, the western face of Independence Hill plunged steeply for eight hundred feet through rugged, rock-strewn terrain; an approach so formidable the Mexicans did not even bother to post sentries. However, in spite of the difficult terrain, Jack Hays convinced General Worth that the Mexicans could be taken by surprise. The assault force totaled Texas Rangers supported by infantry. The two columns would unite just below the summit of the hill and make the final attack together. The perilous climb began at A.

In spite of a stiff, cold wind that continued to blow out of the west, the Rangers climbed to within yards of the summit before they were spotted. Caught completely off guard, the Mexicans failed to react in time, and after firing a fierce volley, the Texans once again led the way in a screaming charge.

Mexican-American War 170th: Battle of Monterrey, pt. 1

The ruse worked, as the Mexicans poured out of the Palace in pursuit of the retreating dragoons only to crest a rise in the mesa and come face-to-face with the 5th and 7th Infantry regiments. The American infantry fired a well-coordinated volley before advancing with lowered bayonets, and the Rangers added to the confusion by opening fire on the exposed Mexican flanks from concealed positions along both sides of the hill.

Pressing their advantage, the American infantry and Rangers quickly turned the Mexican retreat into another rout. A group of artillerymen who had hoisted a pound howitzer up the steep face of the western slope added to the carnage by battering the gates of the palace with round after round of solid shot, and the remaining defenders fled toward the city. Worth spent the rest of the day consolidating his position and moving his forces into the western outskirts of Monterrey. Early the following morning, 23 September, the American assault on Monterrey began with coordinated attacks from the west and east.

This time, however, instead of attacking directly down the narrow streets, the Americans employed new urban warfare techniques taught to them by the Texas Rangers. The Texans had gained experience fighting in Mexican-style cities during the siege of San Antonio in and again in at the infamous border town of Mier.

Both towns were constructed similar to Monterrey, with narrow streets, a central square, and thick-walled buildings with shared interior walls and parapets lining their flat roofs. Once inside a building, they would systematically work their way to the roof and clear it before continuing their advance to the next building.

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The process was tedious and time consuming, but it resulted in far fewer casualties. The Texans had also learned not to approach street barricades head-on, especially if they were fortified with artillery.

Instead, once cleared, they would place their own snipers on the rooftops to kill any artillerymen foolish enough to approach the guns. The Texans and Mississippians fighting under Jefferson Davis in the east also possessed rifles rather than smoothbore muskets. The barrels of these weapons were rifled which spun the bullet as it exited from the muzzle, making them much more accurate than standard issue muskets. The rifles allowed the Texans and Mississippians to hit the well-hidden Mexican soldiers, who rarely showed more than their head above a parapet or a glimpse at a window or hole in a wall.

Unfortunately, although many of the techniques employed at Monterrey are still used in urban warfare today, the lessons were not retained by the U.

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Army of and had to be relearned later. Battle of Monterrey Wikipedia. Under intense pressure from the American assault, Mexican troops grudgingly abandoned their well-fortified positions and slowly withdrew toward the center of the city. Eventually, they were trapped in the area of the central plaza and cathedral, along with the civilians who had remained in Monterrey, where they suffered under a nearly continual bombardment from the deadly American howitzers.

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Gateway South: The Campaign for Monterrey by U S Department of the Army -

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Good solid copy. Shipping and handling. The seller has not specified a shipping method to Germany. Contact the seller - opens in a new window or tab and request shipping to your location. Shipping cost cannot be calculated. Blanco Lombardini. Mejia Ortega Torrejon. Buena Vista outflanking the entire American position. He quickly ordered them onto the plateau, but a large number of his cavalry remounted their horses and rode north toward the hacienda de Buena Vista, opening an unopposed avenue of attack directly to the supply depot at the hacienda.

Fortunately for the Americans, a brief lull in the fighting gave each side an opportunity to regroup. But the situation did not look promising for Wool: In less than forty-five minutes of fighting, his entire left had collapsed. Ampudia went to the threatened sector and began collecting as many troops as he could find to establish another line.


III 1. Blanco XX. X Lomba. Wool cobbled together the 2d Illinois, ARK. As a result, he forfeited much of the plateau III to the Mexicans. Wool sent the 1st Mississippi and later the 3d 3 IND. Mexicans struck. The volunteers dismounted and formed a defen- ND. Inside the build- X. Pacheco other units that had fled north after the initial Mexican assault on their left, made up the defense. The few remaining soldiers fended off the initial assault, but Colonel Yell died fighting the Mexican lancers. John F. Colonel May soon arrived with his squadron of dragoons and forced the Mexicans to flee in confusion.

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Davis, from his position on the plateau to the south, observed the fleeing Mexicans and moved to block their line of retreat. Another threat emerged on the plateau as the 1st Mississippi moved back into its previous position. Tactical doctrine at the time called for an infantry regiment to form a square against a cavalry threat, as several American units did at Palo Alto. Instead, Davis and Bissell took full advantage of the ground they defended. Torrejon moved against the unusual arrangement and closed within yards of the American position under artillery fire. At eighty yards, he ordered an all-out charge.

Davis gave the order to. The deadly effectiveness of the close-range volley brought the Mexicans to a standstill. Seeing that the advance had stalled completely, the Mississippians charged forward and drove the lancers away. Once there, however, they became trapped and were unable to return to the main Mexican line.

At approximately , as the Americans prepared to attack the isolated force of some 2, men, Mexican officers approached with a white flag. Taylor ordered all firing stopped and Wool met with the officers.

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After nearly seven hours of desperate fighting, another lull fell over the battlefield. Both sides recovered as many of their wounded as possible and rested their tired men and horses. While the Mexican attacks had turned the American left, threatened the American forward supply depot at the hacienda de Buena Vista, and cost Taylor a number of casualties, Santa Anna had failed to drive the U.

Army out of La Angostura. The Mexican general decided to take a final gamble with his superior manpower.