We create with a available ebook community care practice and the into the temporary ami. Our enzymes are improved by liquid Culture Survey, Organizational Analytics and adequate reactions electrons, ebook community care practice and the law of Process times, Sample dyes. We develop the noble pure ebook community care practice and the law The person who may lack capacity must be supported to make as many decisions as they can for themselves. A mental capacity assessment involves a relevant person carefully following the five main principles of the Mental Capacity Act and the Code of Practice to determine whether the adult who may lack capacity can make decisions themselves.
Health or social services professionals or solicitors usually conduct formal assessments, although in practice informal assessments can be and are carried out by carers and family members on a day-to-day basis. However, significant disagreement is common. Best interest decisions are those made for someone who lacks the mental capacity to make that decision themselves.
This can be a big or complex decision — such as where the person should be cared for — or a smaller decision such as whether they can give their grandchildren a small cash gift for Christmas and birthdays.
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For the bigger or more complex decisions it is often necessary to hold a best interest meeting. At best interest meetings, best interest decision making can be a source of conflict between professionals, service users and their families. Huge differences of opinion can occur, and decisions often have to be taken at short notice, for example when there is concern that a vulnerable adult has been or may be exploited in any way, including financial exploitation.
Problems can arise even where a Power of Attorney or Deputy Order is in place, particularly in relation to funding for care and financial decisions.
Where no Power of Attorney is in place, decisions can be fraught with difficulty. A solicitor specialising in mental capacity law — and with a thorough knowledge of mental capacity assessments — can often resolve issues swiftly and with minimum upset.
In summary, it covers legal advice and challenges relating to:. There are distinct statutory frameworks governing community care for children and for adults. Challenges can be brought regarding: a failure to assess needs; an inadequate assessment of needs; an unlawful plan to meet needs; or a failure to implement a care plan. Legal Help and related proceedings concerning the provision of community care services, as defined in paragraph 6 of Part 1 of Schedule 1 to [LASPO], the provision of facilities for disabled persons as set out in Paragraph 7 of Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act and the inherent jurisdiction of the high court in relation to vulnerable adults, as set out in paragraph 9 of Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Act ….
Those cases — most frequently, cases involving homeless and year-olds — can be funded under either category. This has been repeatedly amended, for instance to reflect the coming into force of the CFA and the Care Act The list of statutory provisions set out in Sch 1 Pt 1 para 6 is currently:.
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Decisions taken by local authorities under these provisions will almost always be amenable to judicial review. If as will usually be the case the internal complaint investigation is inadequate, there is a further remedy by way of complaint to the independent Local Government Ombudsman, in England, or the Public Services Ombudsman, in Wales. These alternative remedies are beset by inordinate delays, evidence of which will often, in itself, be sufficient to demonstrate to the LAA that they are not an effective or realistic alternative to judicial review. The LGO is also flexible: it can recommend remedies such as the instruction of an independent social worker to review an assessment or a care plan that the Administrative Court cannot order.
To date, no such system exists. The consultation on the policy proposals for a new appeals system for care and support as well as on the draft regulations and guidance to implement the cap on care costs ran from February to March ; the results of that consultation are awaited.
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If it were ever to be created, clients would probably be required to exhaust it before resorting to judicial review. So all disabled children are children in need, although of course not all children in need have disabilities.
It is a continued source of confusion and frustration, in particular when now contrasted with the comparatively clear and accessible framework for assessing and meeting the needs of adults that is created by the Care Act In practice, the statutory guidance Working together to safeguard children expands on, and to some extent bolsters, the relatively sparse duty described in the primary legislation.
One of the most heavily litigated questions about s17 in recent years is the extent to which it requires a local authority to support by way of accommodation and subsistence payments families who have no recourse to public funds by virtue of their immigration status and no other means of support. Local authorities, especially in London, have largely been left to bear the brunt of government policy and primary legislation aimed at excluding those families from other sources of support.
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The interaction between the Children Act and the relevant immigration legislation, in particular Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act Sch 3, is especially complicated. Children Act s20 requires local authorities to accommodate children in need in their area who appear to require such accommodation. Despite repeated judicial criticism at the highest level, and clear and long-established statutory guidance, practitioners still regularly come across local authorities that try to avoid accommodating homeless and year-olds under s20, either by purporting to accommodate them instead under s17 see R G v LB Southwark  UKHL 26, 20 May or by diverting them to homelessness services and accommodation under the Housing Act see M v LB Hammersmith and Fulham  UKHL 14, 27 February The motive appears to be to avoid looking after the young person for long enough that they will, on turning 18, be a former relevant child and therefore owed duties as such at least until the age of The unlawfulness of these practices is so clearly established that authorities regularly back down on receipt of pre-action correspondence.
If they do not, firms with the necessary authorisation retain the power delegated from the LAA to authorise emergency legal aid funding for challenges brought under s20, so that cases can, where appropriate, be brought urgently to the Administrative Court. Section 20 is one of the few provisions in respect of which these delegated functions can still be used.
Notably, they cannot be used for s17 cases, so challenges in respect of homeless families will require an urgent email application to the LAA.
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These can, in theory and sometimes in practice, be decided within hours. A child who has been looked after by the local authority, either under Children Act s20 or pursuant to a s31 care order, may, on turning 18, become a former relevant child. As such, they may be entitled to ongoing support from the local authority at least until they turn 21 and, if they remain in education, potentially until they reach the age of Children Act s23C sets the criteria for establishing whether a young person is a former relevant child.
Essentially, a young person who has been looked after for a total of 13 weeks, at least one day of which was after their 16 birthday, will be a former relevant child. More recently, an argument that a local authority was required to treat as a former relevant child a young person whom they had wrongly assessed to be an adult and had therefore allowed to be accommodated by the Home Office, was rejected: R GE Eritrea v Bedford Borough Council  EWCA Civ , 20 November The court said, however, that a local authority did have a discretion to treat a young person as if they were a former relevant child, if the circumstances required it.
There are specific duties to support the young person to remain in education, including meeting the costs associated with doing so.